**Courses for ***BTech *in Electronics & Communication Engineering

*BTech*in Electronics & Communication Engineering

**Semiconductor Devices and Circuits**

P-N JUNCTION DIODE: - P-N junction and its V-I characteristics, P-N junction as rectifier, diode as acircuit element, the load line concept, half-wave and full-wave rectifiers, filter circuits. Photoelectric devices& their applications.REGULATED POWER SUPPLIES: - Series and shunt voltage regulators, power supply parameters, threeterminal IC regulators, SMPS. TRANSISTORS: - Review of BJT and its Hybrid model, analysis of a transistor amplifier circuit using hparameters,Emitter follower, Miller’s theorem, Frequency response of R-C coupled amplifier, Multistageamplifier, classification of amplifiers, Transistor Biasing; Operating point, Bias stability, Collector to Basebias, Self-bias, emitter bias, bias compensation, Thermistor and sensitor compensation, High frequencylimitations on BJT’S FEEDBACK OSCILLATORS AND POWER AMPLIFIERS: - Feedback in amplifiers: Basic feedbacktopologies. Oscillators: Barkhausen’s criterion, sinusoidal oscillators, Phase shift oscillators, Resonantcircuit oscillator, a general form of oscillator, the Wein Bridge oscillator, Crystal oscillator. Introduction topower amplifiers and its various types with applications. FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS: - JFET, pinch-off voltage, Volt-ampere characteristics, small signalmodel, MOSFET-Enhancement & Depletion mode, V-MOSFET, JFET & MOSFET amplifiers, Biasing ofJFETS and MOSFETS.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Integrated Electronics: Millman&Halkias; McGraw Hill.
- Electronic circuit analysis and design (Second Edition): D.A. Neamen; TMH
- Electronics Principles: Malvino; McGraw Hill.
- Electronics circuits: Donald L. Schilling & Charles Belove: McGraw Hill.
- Electronics Devices & Circuits: Boylestad&Nashelsky; Pearson.

**Digital Electronics and Logic Design**

Introduction to Number Systems and Codes.Switching properties of Diodes, BJT and FET, Logic gates, DTL, TTL, ECL, I2L, CMOS Gates and their parameters and comparisons, Applications of switching transistors in bistable, monostable, astable and Schmitt trigger circuits. Boolean algebra, Switching Function, minimization of switching function: Karnaugh map method and Tabulation Method don’t care terms and applications w.r.to code converters and Digital Comparators, etc. Gated Flip Flops, Master Slave Flip Flop, Ripple and Parallel Counter, Up-Down Counter, Shift Registers and Ring Counter, designing the combinational circuits of the counters through Excitation Table. Introduction to the circuits for Arithmetic Unit: Serial and parallel Binary Adders, 2’s compliment and principle of subtraction, Carry-Look Ahead Adder, and BCD adder: Principles of multiplication, division in ALU Semiconductor memories: ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Bipolar RAM, static and dynamic RAM. Encoder and Decoder/Demultiplexer, multiplexer, Designing combinational circuits with multiplexer, ROM and PLA.Introduction to advanced memory concepts.Analog-to-Digital conversion:, dual slope integration method and voltage to frequency conversion, principal of DVM. , counter type, successive approximation type, Flash ADC , D-A converter: weighted resistors type, R-2-R ladder type.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- H.Taub& D. Schilling, “Digital Integrated Electronics” (TMH).
- Malvino& Leach, “Digital Principles and Application” (TMH).
- M.Mano, “Digital Electronics And Logic Design” (PHI)
- B.S.Sonde, “Introduction To System Design Using Integrated Circuits” (New Age International).
- Z. Kohavi ,“Switching And Finite Automata Theory” (TMH).
- R. P. Jain, “Modern Digital Electronics” (TMH).
- Gothman, “Digital Electronics” (PHI).

**Network Analysis and Synthesis**

Review of network elements: Linear versus nonlinear, time-variant and time invariant, passive verses active, causal and non-anticipated, stable and unstable networks, Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Network graph theory, notations and definitions, incidence matrix, cutsets and fundamental loops, fundamental cutsets matrix, Kirchoff voltage law, Kirchoff current low, interrelation ship between matrices of a graph, Tellegen’s theorem and its application. Analysis of linear time invariant networks, transform methods in circuit analysis, Laplace transform of common signals, concept of transformed impedance, network functions, poles and zeros, impulse response, step response, convolution. Two-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. conversion, various interconnections, analysis using various two port parameters. State equations for networks.State variable analysis of circuits, formulation of state equations, solution of state equations.Transient Response of RC, RL, RLC Circuits to various excitation signals such as step, ramp, impulse and sinusoidal excitations using Laplace Transform.Steady state sinusoidal analysis. Passive /Active network synthesis, positive real functions, driving point synthesis(RC, RL, LC, ) Introduction to passive filter.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- M.E. Van Valkenburg, “Network Analysis” Third Edition; Prentice Hall, 1986
- BehrouzPeikari; “Fundamentals of Network Analysis & Synthesis” Jaico Publishing house, 2006.
- F.F.Kuo; “Network Analysis & Synthesis” John Wiley & Sons Inc
- Hyat Jr. &Kemmerly; “Engineering Circuit analysis”, McGraw Hill

**Signal and Systems**

An introduction to signals and systems- Signals and systems as seen in everyday life, and in various branches of engineering and science electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, biomedical signals and systems as examples. Extracting the common essence and requirements of signal and system analysis from these examples. Formalizing signals- energy and power signals, signal properties: periodicity, absolute integrability, determinism and stochastic character. Some special signals of importance: the unit step, the unit impulse, the sinusoid, the complex exponential, some special time-limited signals; continuous and discrete time signals, continuous and discreteamplitudesignals. Formalizing systems- system properties: linearity: additivity and homogeneity, shift-invariance, causality, stability, realizability. Examples. Continuous time and discrete time Linear shift-invariant (LSI) systems in detailthe impulse response and step response, convolution, input-output behavior with aperiodic convergent inputs, cascade interconnections. Characterization of causality and stability oflinear shift-invariant systems. System representation through differential equations and difference equations. Periodic and semi-periodic inputs to an LSI system, the notion of a frequency response and its relation to the impulse response, Fourier series representation, the Fourier Transform, convolution/multiplication and their effect in the frequency domain, magnitude and phase response, Fourier domain duality. The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT) and the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Parseval'sTheorem.The idea of signal space and orthogonal bases of signals. The Laplace Transform for continuous time signals and systems- the notion of eigen functions of LSI systems, a basis of eigen functions, region of convergence, system functions, poles and zeros of system functions and signals, Laplace domain analysis, solution to differential equations and system behavior. Generalization of Parseval's Theorem. The z- Transform for discrete time signals and systems- eigen functions, region of convergence, system functions, poles and zeros of systems and sequences, z-domain analysis. Generalization of Parseval's Theorem. System realization through block-diagram representation and system interconnection. State space analysis and multi-input, multi-output representation. The statetransition matrix and its role. The Sampling Theorem and its implications- Spectra of sampled signals. Reconstruction: ideal interpolator, zero-order hold, first-order hold, and so on. Aliasing and its effects. Relation between continuous and discrete time systems. Applications of signal and system theory**- **modulation for communication, filtering and so on. **Advanced topics: **time-frequency representation and the uncertainty principle, Short-time Fourier Transforms and wavelet transforms.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- R.F. Ziemer, W.H. Tranter and D.R. Fannin, "Signals and Systems - Continuous and Discrete", 4th edition, Prentice Hall, 1998.
- A. Papoulis, "Circuits and Systems: A Modern Approach", HRW, 1980.
- B.P. Lathi, "Signal Processing and Linear Systems", Oxford University Press, 1998.
- Douglas K. Lindner, "Introduction to Signals and Systems", Mc-Graw Hill International Edition: 1999.
- Simon Haykin, Barry van Veen, "Signals and Systems", John Wiley and Sons (Asia) Private Limited, 1998.
- M. J. Roberts, "Signals and Systems - Analysis using Transform methods and MATLAB", TMH, 2003.

**Analog Electronics**

Scope and applications of analog electronic circuits. Amplifier models: Voltage amplifier, current amplifier, trans-conductance amplifier and trans-resistance amplifier. Biasing schemes for BJT and FET amplifiers, bias stability, various configurations (such as CE/CS, CB/CG, CC/CD) and their features, small signal analysis, low frequency transistor models, estimation of voltage gain, input resistance, output resistance etc., design procedure for particular specifications, low frequency analysis of multistage amplifiers. High frequency transistor models, frequency response of single stage and multistage amplifiers, cascode amplifier. Various classes of operation (Class A, B, AB, C etc.), their power efficiency and linearity issues. Feedback topologies: Voltage series, current series, voltage shunt, current shunt, effect of feedback on gain, bandwidth etc., calculation with practical circuits, concept of stability, gain margin and phase margin. Oscillators: Review of the basic concept, Barkhausen criterion, RC oscillators (phase shift, Wien bridge etc.), LC oscillators (Hartley, Collpit, Clapp etc.), non-sinusoidal oscillators. Current mirror: Basic topology and its variants, V-I characteristics, output resistance and minimum sustainable voltage (VON), maximum usable load. Differential amplifier: Basic structure and principle of operation, calculation of differential gain, common mode gain, CMRR and ICMR. OP-AMP design: design of differential amplifier for a given specification, design of gain stages and output stages, compensation. OP-AMP applications: review of inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, integrator and differentiator, summing amplifier, precision rectifier, Schmitt trigger and its applications. Active filters: Low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop, design guidelines. Digital-to-analog converters (DAC): Weighted resistor, R-2R ladder, resistor string etc. Analog-to-digital converters (ADC): Single slope, dual slope, successive approximation, flash etc. Switched capacitor circuits: Basic concept, practical configurations, application in amplifier, integrator, ADC etc. Semiconductor devices: UJT, SCR, diac, triac etc., device characteristics and application circuits. Case studies: practical circuits of typical electronic systems.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- J.V. Wait, L.P. Huelsman and GA Korn, Introduction to Operational Amplifier theory and applications,
- McGraw Hill, 1992.
- J. Millman and A. Grabel, Microelectronics, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill, 1988.
- P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
- A.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Saunder's College Publishing, Edition IV
- Paul R.Gray \& Robert G.Meyer, Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits, John Wiley, 3rd Edition

**Principles of Communication**

Review of signals and systems, Frequency domain of signals, Principles of Amplitude Modulation Systems- DSB, SSB and VSB modulations. Angle Modulation., Representation of FM and PM signals. Spectral characteristics of angle modulated signals. Review of probability and random process. Gaussian and white noise characteristics. Noise in amplitude modulation systems. Noise in Frequency modulation systems. Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis. Threshold effect in angle modulation. Pulse modulation. Sampling process. Pulse Amplitude and Pulse code modulation (PCM). Differential pulse code modulation. Delta modulation. Noise considerations in PCM. Time Division multiplexing. Digital Multiplexers.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Haykin S., "Communications Systems", John Wiley and Sons, 2001.
- Proakis J. G. and Salehi M., "Communication Systems Engineering", Pearson Education, 2002.
- Taub H. and Schilling D.L., "Principles of Communication Systems", Tata McGraw Hill, 2001.

**Digital Communication**

Analog Pulse Modulation: Sampling theorem for band-pass signals, Pulse Amplitude modulation: generation and demodulation, PAM/TDM system, PPM generation an demodulation, PWM, Spectra of Pulse modulated signals, SNR calculations for pulse modulation systems. Waveform coding: uantization, PCM, DPCM, Delta modulation, Adaptive delta modulation- Design of typical systems and performance analysis.Pulse Shaping, Nyquist criterion for zero ISI, Signalling with duobinary pulses, Eye diagram, Equalizer, Scrambling and descrambling.Signal space concepts: geometric structure of the signal space, L2 space, distance, norm and inner product, orthogonality,- Base band pulse data transmission: Matched filter receiver, Inter symbol interference, Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure. Review of Gaussian random process, Optimum threshold detection, Optimum Receiver for AWGN channel, Matched filter and Correlation receivers, Decision Procedure: Maximum a- posteriori probability detector- Maximum likelihood Detector, Probability of error, Bit error rate. Digital modulation schemes: Coherent Binary Schemes : ASK, FSK, PSK, MSK,GMSK. Coherent M-ary Schemes, Incoherent Schemes, Calculation of average probability of error for different modulation schemes, Power spectra of digitally modulated signals, Performance comparison of different digital modulation schemes.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Simon Haykin; “Communication Systems” John Wiley & Sons.
- B.P. Lathi; “Modern Digital and Analog Communication”, 3rd Edition Oxford University Press.
- Sklar; “Digital Communication”, 2E Pearson Education.
- K.SamShanmugham; “Digital and Analog Communication Systems”John Wiley & Sons
- R.E. Ziemer and W.H. Tranter; “Principles of Communications” JAICO Publishing House.
- H.Taub and Schilling; “Principles of Communication Systems” TMH.

**Computer Architecture**

Introduction to basic computer architecture, register transfer, bus and memory transfers, arithmetic, logic and shift micro operations. Instruction codes, computer registers, computer instructions, timing and control, instruction cycle, memory reference instructions, I/O interrupt, complete computer description, design of basic computer, design of accumulator logic. Micro programmed control, control memory, address sequencing, micro program example, design of control unit. Central Processing Unit: Introduction, general register organization, stack organization, instruction formats, addressing modes, data transfer and manipulation, program control, RISC. Pipeline and Vector Processing: Parallel processing, pipelining, arithmetic pipeline, instruction pipeline, RISC pipeline, vector processing, array processors. Input-output Organisation: Peripheral devices, input-output interface, asynchronous data transfer, modes of transfer, priority interrupt, DMA, IOP serial communication. Memory Organisation: Memory hierarchy, main memory, auxillary memory, associative memory, cache memory, virtual memory, memory management, hardware multiprocessor architectures and their characteristics, interconnection structures, inter processor arbitration, inter-processor communication and synchronization, cache coherence.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Morris Mano, “Computer System Architecture”, PHI.
- J.F. Heys, “Computer Organization and Architecture”, TMH.
- Hwang K. and F.A. Briggs, “Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing”, TMH.

**Electromagnetic Theory**

Maxwell’s Equation: Faraday’s law, Transformer and motional EMFs, Displacement current, Maxwell equations in final forms, Time varying potentials, Time-Harmonic Fields. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation: Waves in general, Wave propagation in lossy dielectrics, Plane waves in lossless dielectrics, Plane waves in free space, Plane waves in good conductors, Power and Poynting vector, Reflection of a plane wave at normal and oblique incidence. Transmission Lines: Transmission line parameters and equations; Input impedance, SWR, and Power; Smith Chart, Some applications of Transmission lines, Transients on transmission lines, Microstrip transmission lines. Waveguides: Rectangular waveguides, Transverse Magnetic modes, Transverse Electric modes, Wave propagation in the guide, Power transmission and attenuation, Waveguide current and mode excitation, Waveguide resonators.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- M. N. O. Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics Oxford University Press (India).
- Hayt and Buck, Engineering Electromagnetics TMH.
- Ramo, Whinnery and Van Duzer, John Fields and Waves in Communications Electronics Wiley & Sons.
- David K Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics Pearson Education (India)

**Introduction to VLSI Design**

Introduction to VLSI, Manufacturing process of CMOS integrated circuits, CMOS n-well process design rules, packaging integrated circuits, trends in process technology. MOS transistor, Energy band diagram of MOS system, MOS under external bias, derivation of threshold voltage equation, secondary effects in MOSFETS, MOSFET scaling and small geometry effects, MOS capacitances, Modeling of MOS transistors using SPICE, level I II and equations, capacitance models. **The Wire: **Interconnect parameters: capacitance, resistance and inductance. Electrical wire models: The ideal wire, the lumped model, the lumped RC model, the distributed RC model, The transmission line model, SPICE wire models. **MOS inverters: **Resistive load inverter, inverter with n type MOSFET load, CMOS inverter: Switching Threshold, Noise Margin, Dynamic behavior of CMOS inverter, computing capacitances, propagation delay, Dynamic power consumption, static power consumption, energy, and energy delay product calculations, stick diagram, IC layout design and tools. Designing Combinational Logic Gates in MOS and CMOS: MOS logic circuits with depletion MOS load .Static CMOS Design: Complementary CMOS, Ratioed logic, Pass transistor logic, BICMOS logic, pseudo nMOS logic, Dynamic CMOS logic, clocked CMOS logic CMOS domino logic, NP domino logic, speed and power dissipation of Dynamic logic, cascading dynamic gates. Designing sequential logic circuits: Timing matrices for sequential circuits, classification of memory elements, static latches and registers, the bistability principle, multiplexer based latches , Master slave Edge triggered register , static SR flip flops, dynamic latches and registers, dynamic transmission gate edge triggered register, the C2 MOS register, Pulse registers, sense amplifier based registers, Pipelining, Latch verses Register based pipelines, NORA-CMOS. Two phase logic structure; VLSI designing methodology – Introduction, VLSI designs flow, Computer aided design technology: Design capture and verification tools, Design Hierarchy Concept of regularity, Modularity & Locality, VLSI design style, Design quality.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Jan M Rabaey, AnanthaChadrakasanBorivojeNikolic “Digital integrated circuits a design perspective” Pearson education.
- Sung MO Kang Yusuf Leblebici; “CMOS digital integrated circuits” Tata McGraw Hill Publication.
- Neil E Weste and Kamran Eshraghian; “Principle of CMOS VLSI Design” Pearson education

**Elective Courses for BTech in Electronics & Communication Engineering**

**Control Systems**

**Introduction to Control System: **Linear, Non Linear, Time Varying and Linear Time Invariant System, Servomechanism, Historical Development of Automatic Control and Introduction to Digital Computer Control, Mathematical Models of Physical Systems, Differential Equations of Physical Systems, Transfer Functions, Block Diagram Algebra and Signal Flow Graphs. Feedback and Non-feedback Systems Reduction of Parameter Variations By Use of Feedback Control Over System Dynamics By Use of Feedback Control of Effects of Disturbance Single By Use of Feedback and Regenerative Feedback. **Control Systems and Components: **DC and AC Servomotors, Synchro Error Detector, Tacho Generator and, Stepper Motors etc.**Time Response Analysis: **Standard Test Signals, Time Response of First-order Systems, Time Response of Second-Order Systems, Steady-State Error and Error Constants, Effect of Adding a Zero to a System, P, PI and PID Control Action and Their Effect, Design Specifications of Second-Order Systems and Performance Indices. **Frequency Response Analysis: **Correlation Between Time and Frequency Response, Polar Plots, Bode Plots, and All Pass and Minimum-Phase Systems. The Concept of Stability, Necessary Conditions for Stability, Hurwitz Stability Criterion, Routh Stability Criterion and relative Stability Analysis. The Root Locus Concept, Construction of Root Loci, Root Contours, Systems with Transportation Lag, Sensitivity of the Roots of the Characteristic equation, MATLAB : Analysis and Design of Control Systems. **Stability in Frequency Domain: **Mathematical Preliminaries, Nyquist Stability Criterion, Definition of Gain Margin and Phase Margin, Assessment of Relative Stability Using Nyquist Criterion and Closed-Loop Frequency Response.The Design Problem, Preliminary Considerations of Classical Design, Realization of Basic Compensators, Cascade Compensation in Time Domain Cascade Compensation in Frequency Domain, Tuning of PID Controllers. MATLAB based Frequency domain analysis of control system.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Nagrath&Gopal. “Control Systems Engineering” New Age International. Publishers
- Kuo B.C. “Automatic Control System”
- Ogata “Modern Control Engineering”
- Scheultz&Melsa. “Linear Control Systems”
- D’ Azzo&Houpis. “Linear Control Systems - Analysis & Design”

**Fibre Optics Communication **

Introduction to vector nature of light, propagation of light, propagation of light in a cylindrical dielectric rod, Ray model, wave model. Different types of optical fibers, Modal analysis of a step index fiber. Signaldegradation on optical fiber due to dispersion and attenuation. Fabrication of fibers and measurement techniques like OTDR. Optical sources - LEDs and Lasers, Photo-detectors - pin-detectors, detector responsivity, noise, optical receivers. Optical link design - BER calculation, quantum limit, power penalties. Optical switches - coupled mode analysis of directional couplers, electro-optic switches. Nonlinear effects in fiber optic links. Concept of self-phase modulation, group velocity dispersion and solition based communication. Optical amplifiers - EDFA, Raman amplifier, and WDM systems.

__Practicals__

- Transmission of Light between two fibers.
- Fiber optics transmission sensor.
- Setting of fiber optics analog link.
- Study of losses in optical fiber.
- Measurement of numerical aperture.
- Setting up fiber optics digital link.
- Principal of Semiconductor Laser Diode.
- Study of characteristics of fiber optics LED and Photo Detector.
- Study of time division de-multiplexing.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- J. Keiser, Fibre Optic communication, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Ed. 1992.
- J.E. Midwinter, Optical fibers for transmission, John Wiley, 1979.
- T. Tamir, Integrated optics, (Topics in Applied Physics Vol.7), Springer-Verlag, 1975.
- J. Gowar, Optical communication systems, Prentice Hall India, 1987.
- S.E. Miller and A.G. Chynoweth, eds., Optical fibres telecommunications, Academic Press, 1979.
- G. Agrawal, Nonlinear fibre optics, Academic Press, 2nd Ed. 1994.
- G. Agrawal, Fiber optic Communication Systems, John Wiley and sons, New York, 1992
- F.C. Allard, Fiber Optics Handbook for engineers and scientists, McGraw Hill, New York (1990).

**Digital Signal Processing **

Introduction to signals and systems Discrete time signals and systems, Ztransforms, structures for digital filters, design procedures for FIR and IIR filters. Frequency transformations: linear phase design; DFT. Methods for computing FFT. Noise analysis of digital filters, power spectrum estimation. Signals and signal Processing: characterization & classification of signals, typical Signal Processing operations, example of typical Signals, typical Signal Processing applications. Time Domain Representation of Signals & Systems- Discrete Time Signals, Operations on Sequences, the sampling process, Discrete-Time systems, Time-Domain characterization of LTI Discrete-Time systems, state-space representation of LTI Discrete- Time systems, random signals. Transform-Domain Representation of Signals-The Discrete-Time Fourier Transform, Discrete Fourier Transform, DFT properties, computation of the DFT of real sequences, Linear Convolution using the DFT. Z-transforms, Inverse ztransform, properties of z-transform, transform domain representations of random signals. Transform-Domain Representation of LTI Systems: the frequency response, the transfer function, types of transfer function, minimum-phase and maximum-Phase transfer functions, complementary transfer functions, Discrete-Time processing of random signals. Digital Processing of Continuous-Time Signals - sampling of Continuous Signals, Analog Filter Design, Anti-aliasing Filter Design, Sample-and Hold circuits, A/D & D/A converter, Reconstruction Filter Design. Digital Filter Structure and Design- Block Diagram representation, Signal Flow Graph Representation, Equivalent Structures, bone FIR Digital Filter Structures, IIR Filter Structures, State-space structure, all pass filters, tunable IIR Digital filters. cascaded Lattice realization of IIR and FIR filters, Parallel all pass realization of IIR transfer function, Digital Sine-Cosine generator. Digital Filter Design: Impulse invariance method of IIR filter design, Bilinear Transform method of IIR Filter Design, Design of Digital IIR notch filters, FIR filter Design based on truncated fonnersens, FIR filter design based on Frequency Sampling approach.

__Practicals__

1: Discrete time signals: Sequences; representation of signals on orthogonal basis; Sampling and reconstruction of signals;

2: Discrete systems: attributes, Z-Transform, Analysis of LSI systems, Frequency analysis, Inverse Systems, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, Implementation of Discrete Time Systems.

3: Design of FIR Digital filters: Window method, Park-McClellan's method.

4: Design of IIR Digital Filters: Butterworth, Chebyshev and Elliptic Approximations; Lowpass, Bandpass, Bandstop and High pass filters.

5: Effect of finite register length in FIR filter design.

6: Parametric and non-parametric spectral estimation. Introduction to multirate signal processing.

7: Application of DSP to Speech and Radar signal processing.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Proakis J.G., and Manolakis, Introduction to DSP, PHI, 2007
- Sanjit K. Mitra, “Applications DSP a Computer based approach”, TMH, 2006
- Allan Y. Oppenhein& Ronald W. Schater , "Applications DSP”,.
- C. Sydney Burrus (Eds), DSP and Digital Filter Design

**Microprocessors**

Introduction to microprocessor, history of computers, timing and control, memory devices-semiconductor memory organization, category of memory, 8-bit microprocessor (8085):Architecture, Instruction set, Addressing mode, assembly language programming 16-bit microprocessor (8086):architecture, physical address ,segmentation, memory organization, bus cycle, addressing modes, introduction to 80186/80286,assembly language programming of 8086. Data transfer scheme: introduction, types of transmission, 8257(DMA), 8255(PPI), serial data transfer (USART 8251), keyboard- display controller (8279), programmable priority controller (8259) Programmable interval timer/ counter (8253/8254): introduction , modes, interfacing of 8253, application. ADC/DAC: introduction DAC methods, ADC converters, Types of ADC, ADC IC (0808/0809) , DAC and ADC interfacing and applications.Advance microprocessor: introduction to 32-bit and 64-bit microprocessor, power PC, microcontroller (8051) : introduction, Architecture Alphanumeric displays, LCD, Graphic Displays, high power Devices. Communication Bus protocols :RS 232,RS 485,SPI, Inter integrated circuits interfacing I2C standard.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- D.V. Hall : Microprocessor interfacing, TMH second edition

- Barry.B.Brey,The Intel Microprocessor 8086/8088. 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486 Architecture Programming and Interfacing ”, PHI
- Y. C. Liu and G. A. Gibson: microcomputer systems : the 8086/ 8080A family architecture programming and design, PHI 2nd edition
- John P. Hayes : digital system design and microprocessors, mcgraw hill publication

**Information Theory and Coding**

Uncertainty, Probablilty, Entropy, Shannon's Measure, Joint Entropy, Mutual Information, Differential Entropy, AEP, Entropy Rates of a Stochastic Process, Markov Chains, Hidden Markov Models, Data Compression, Kraft Inequality, Entropy of English Language, Inference, Sufficient Statistics, Maximum Likelihood and Clustering, Marginalization, Laplaces Method, Model Comparison and Occam's Razor; Maximum Entropy Principle, Maximum Entropy Probability Distributions, Jaynes Concentration Theorem, Applications-Physics, Economics, Statistics. Information in Contingency Tables, Comparison and Fisher's and Maxent Methods of Estimation; Further Applications of Maxent Principle: Pattern Recognition as a Quest for Minimum Entropy, Non-Linear Spectral Analysis, Parametric Entropy Measures: Renyi, Tsallis, Power Laws

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- J. N. Kapur and H. K. Kesavan, "Entropy Optimization Principles with Applications", Academic Press, 1992
- J. van der Lubbe, “Information Theory", Cambridge University, 1997
- T. M. Cove and J. A. Thomas, "Elements of Information Theory", Wiley, 1991
- R. F. Blahut, "Principles and Practice of Information Theory", Addison Wesley, 1988

**Microwave Devices & Circuits **

Applications of Microwaves: Civil and Military, Medical, EMI/ EMC.Mathematical Model of Microwave Transmission-Concept of Mode, Features of TEM, TE and TM Modes, Losses associated with microwave transmission, Concept ofImpedance in Microwave transmission.Analysis of RF and Microwave Transmission Lines- Coaxial line, Rectangularwaveguide, Circular waveguide, Strip line, Micro strip line.Microwave Network Analysis- Equivalent voltages and currents for non-TEMlines, Network parameters for microwave circuits, Scattering Parameters.Passive and Active Microwave Devices- Microwave passive components:Directional Coupler, Power Divider, Magic Tee, Attenuator, Resonator. Microwave active components: Diodes, Transistors, Oscillators, Mixers. Microwave Semiconductor Devices: Gunn Diodes, IMPATT diodes, Schottky Barrier diodes, PIN diodes. Microwave Tubes: Klystron, TWT, Magnetron. Microwave Design Principles- Impedance transformation, Impedance Matching, Microwave Filter Design, RF and Microwave Amplifier Design, Microwave Power Amplifier Design, Low Noise Amplifier Design, Microwave Mixer Design, Microwave Oscillator Design. Microwave Antennas- Antenna parameters, Antenna for ground based systems, Antennas for airborne and satellite borne systems, Planar Antennas.Microwave Measurements- Power, Frequency and impedance measurement atmicrowave frequency, Network Analyzer and measurement of scattering parameters,Spectrum Analyzer and measurement of spectrum of a microwave signal, Noise atmicrowave frequency and measurement of noise figure. Measurement of Microwave antenna parameters.Microwave Systems- Radar, Terrestrial and Satellite Communication, Radio Aids to Navigation, RFID, GPS. Modern Trends in Microwaves Engineering- Effect ofMicrowaves on human body, Medical and Civil applications of microwaves, Electromagnetic interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMI & EMC), Monolithic Microwave ICs, RFMEMS for microwave components, Microwave Imaging.

**Practicals**

- Performance of Gunn Diode & Gunn Oscillator.
- Performance of Klystron & Reflex Klystron Tubes.
- Study of Magnetron.
- Study of Isolators, Directional Couplers (Cross Directional &Multihole) slotted line & Block diagram of basic microwave bench.
- Performance of VSWR meter.
- Measurement of frequency of microwave.
- Measurement of guide wavelength.
- Measurement of Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR).
- Measurement of Reflection Coefficient.
- Measurement of cutoff wavelength (TE10 mode) Using C=2/(m/a) + (n/b)=2a.
- Study of E-plane, H-plane and Magic Tee.
- Performance of Pin diode and Pin modulator.
- Measurement of guided power.
- Measurement of attenuation in dB for a given component.
- Study of wave-guide

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- R.E. Collins, Microwave Circuits, McGraw Hill
- K.C. Gupta and I.J. Bahl, Microwave Circuits, Artech house

**Biomedical Electronics**

Brief introduction to human physiology. Biomedical transducers: displacement, velocity, force, acceleration, flow, temperature, potential, dissolved ions and gases. Bio-electrodes and bio-potential amplifiers for ECG, EMG, EEG, etc. Measurement of blood temperature, pressure and flow. Impedance plethysmography. Ultrasonic, X-ray and nuclear imaging. Prostheses and aids: pacemakers, defibrillators, heart-lung machine, artificial kidney, aids for the handicapped. Safety aspects.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- W.F. Ganong, Review of Medical Physiology, 8th Asian Ed, Medical Publishers, 1977.
- J.G. Websster, ed., Medical Instrumentation, Houghton Mifflin, 1978.
- A.M. Cook and J.G. Webster, eds., Therapeutic Medical Devices, Prentice-Hall, 1982.

**Antenna and Propagation **

Fundamental Concepts- Physical concept of radiation, Radiation pattern, near-and far-field regions, reciprocity, directivity and gain, effective aperture, polarization, input impedance, efficiency, Friis transmission equation, radiation integrals and auxiliary potential functions. Radiation from Wires and Loops- Infinitesimal dipole, finite-length dipole, linear elements near conductors, dipoles for mobile communication, small circular loop. Aperture and Reflector Antennas- Huygens' principle, radiation from rectangular and circular apertures, design considerations, Babinet's principle, Radiation from sectoral and pyramidal horns, design concepts, prime-focus parabolic reflector and cassegrain antennas. Broadband Antennas- Log-periodic and Yagi-Uda antennas, frequency independent antennas, broadcast antennas. Micro strip Antennas- Basic characteristics of micro strip antennas, feeding methods, methods of analysis, design of rectangular and circular patch antennas. Antenna Arrays- Analysis of uniformly spaced arrays with uniform and nonuniform excitation amplitudes, extension to planar arrays, synthesis of antenna arrays using Schelkunoff polynomial method, Woodward-Lawson method.Basic Concepts of Smart Antennas- Concept and benefits of smart antennas, Fixed weight beam forming basics, Adaptive beam forming. Different modes of Radio Wave propagation used in current practice.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- J.D. Kraus, Antennas, McGraw Hill, 1988.
- C.A. Balanis, Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, John Wiley, 1982.
- R.E. Collin, Antennas and Radio Wave Propagation, McGraw Hill, 1985.
- .R.C. Johnson and H. Jasik, Antenna Engineering Handbook, McGraw Hill, 1984.
- .I.J. Bahl and P. Bhartia, Micro Strip Antennas, Artech House,1980.
- R.K. Shevgaonkar, Electromagnetic Waves, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005
- R.E. Crompton, Adaptive Antennas, John Wiley

**Practicals**

- Measurement of load impedance.
- Measurement of characteristics of Klystron tube & Gunn Oscillator.
- Measurement of radiation through Horn antenna.
- Assembling the microwave bench.
- Study of UHF & VHF Transmitters.
- Study of radiation pattern for different antennas.
- Measurement of characteristic for different antennas

**Courses for MTech in VLSI:**

**MOS VLSI Design**

Review of digital design (8 lectures)- MUX based digital design (1), Design using ROM, Programmable Logic Arrays (PLA) and Programmable Array Logic (PAL) (2), Sequential circuits and timing - Setup and hold times (1), Sequential circuit design - design of Moore and Mealy circuits (2), Design of a pattern sequence detector using MUX, ROM and PAL (1), and Design of a vending machine controller using PAL (1). Introduction to Verilog coding (6 lectures)- Introduction to Verilog (1), Realization of Combinational and sequential circuits (2), RTL coding guidelines (1), Coding organization and writing a test bench (2). Simulation, Synthesis, Place and Route, and Back Annotation (12 lectures)- Design flow (1), Simulation using Modelsim (4), Synthesis using Synplify (4), Place and Route, and Back Annotation using Xilinx (3) Design using Algorithmic State Machine Charts (7 lectures)- Derivation of ASM charts (1), Design examples such as dice game, etc. using ASM charts (3), Implementation of ASM charts using microprogramming (2), and Verilog design of bus arbitrator (1) Design of memories (3 lectures)- Verilog realization of Read Only Memory (ROM) (1), Verilog realization of Random Access Memory (RAM) , and Verilog coding of controller for accessing external memory (2). Design of Arithmetic functions (5 lectures)- Pipelining concept, Verilog design of a pipelined adder/subtractor (1), Design of Multipliers (3), and Verilog design of a pipelined multiplier (1).Design for testability (3 lectures)- Testing combinational and sequential logic (1), Boundary scan testing, and Built-in self test (2). Design Applications (4 lectures)-Design of a traffic light controller using Verilog (1), and Design of discrete cosine transform and quantization processor for video compression using Verilog (3). Hardware implementation using FPGA board (2 lectures)- Features of FPGA board and demonstration of traffic light controller design (1), and Universal, asynchronous, receiver-transmitter design using FPGA board (1).

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- N. Weste and K. Eshranghian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design, Addison Wesley. 1985
- L. Glaser and D. Dobberpuhl, The Design and Analysis of VLSI Circuits, Addison Wesley, 1985
- C. Mead and L. Conway, Introduction to VLSI Systems, Addison Wesley, 1979.
- J. Rabaey, Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective, Prentice Hall India, 1997.
- D. Perry, VHDL, 2nd Ed., McGraw Hill International, 1995.

**VLSI Design laboratory**

Design of Half-Adder, Full Adder, Half Subtractor, Full Subtractor , Design a parity generator, Design a 4 Bit comparator, Design a RS & JK Flip flop , Design a 4: 1 Multiplexer , Design a 4 Bit Up / Down Counter with Loadable Count , Design a 3:8 decoder, Design a 8 bit shift register, Design a arithmetic unit , Implement ADC & DAC interface with FPGA , Implement a serial communication interface with FPGA, Implement a Telephone keypad interface with FPGA , Implement a VGA interface with FPGA, Implement a PS2 keypad interface with FPGA, Implement a 4 digit seven segment display.

**Hardware Description Languages**

Introduction covering, Introduction to computer organization; Evolution of Operating Systems; Machine languages, Assembly Languages and High Level Languages; Key Software and Hardware Trends, Procedural & Object Oriented Programming Methodologies; Program Development in C, Structured Programming - Algorithm, Pseudocode; The C Standard Library, Data types in C, Arithmetic operators, Control Structures – Ifelse, While, for, do-while, Switch, break and continue statements; Formatted input-output for printing Integers, floating point numbers, characters and strings; Simple C Programming examples; Designing Structured Programs in C covering, Top Down Design and Stepwise refinement; Program Modules in C, Math Library Functions, Function Definition, Prototypes; Header files, Parameter passing in C, Call by Value and Call by Reference; Standard functions, Recursive functions, Preprocessor commands, Example C programs; Scope, Storage classes; Arrays covering, Declaring arrays in C, Passing arrays to functions, Array applications, Two – dimensional arrays, Multidimensional arrays, C program examples; Pointers in C covering, Pointer variable declaration and Initialization. Pointer operators, Pointer expressions and Arithmetic, Relationship between pointers and arrays; Strings including Concepts, String Conversion functions, C Strings, String Manipulation Functions and String Handling Library; Derived types covering, Structures – Declaration, definition and initialization of structures, accessing structures, structures in functions, self-referential structures, unions; Data Structuresincluding Introduction to Data Structures, Stacks, Queues, Trees, representation using arrays, Insertion and deletion operations; Dynamic Memory Allocation covering Linked List Implementation, Insertion, Deletion and Searching operations on linear list; Searching and Sorting – Sorting- selection sort, bubble sort, insertion sort, quick sort, merge sort, Searching-linear and binary search methods;

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Dietel&Dietel (2000),
*C – How to Program,*Pearson Education - Ellis Horowitz, SartajSahni, Susan Anderson (1993),
*Fundamentals of Data Structures in C,*Prentice Hall of India - B.W. Kernighan and Dennis M.Ritchie (1988),
*The C Programming Language*, Pearson Education - J.R. Hanly and E.B. Koffman (2007),
*Problem Solving and Program Design in C,*Pearson Education 51 - A.M. Tanenbaum, Y. Langsam& M.J. Augenstein(2005),
*Data Structures using C,*Pearson Education

**Embedded System Design**

Introduction: Embedded system, software embedded in system, embedded system on chip in VLSI circuit, Categories and requirements of embedded systems, Challenges and issues related to embedded software developments, Embedded system Design: Concepts of concurrency, processes, threads, mutual exclusion and inter-process communication, Models and languages for embedded software, Synchronous approach to embedded system design, Scheduling paradigms, Scheduling, Algorithms, Hardware/Software Co-design, Introduction to RTOS: Basic Design using RTOS, Interfacing, RISC Processor: Architecture, Memory, Reset and Interrupt, Functions, Parallel I/O ports, Timers/Counters, Serial Communication, Analog Interfaces Case Studies and Applications of embedded systems

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Raj Kamal, Embedded Systems, TMH
- FrancVahid, Tony Givargis, Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, John Wiley

**Analog IC Design**

Basic concepts of transistors and diodes, their modeling, large signal and small signal analysis, CMOS technology, clock feedthrough; Reference sources : bias circuits, bandgap reference circuit, cascode current mirror; Single stage amplifier, common source amplifier, drain and gate amplifier, differential amplifier; Operational amplifier; Comparators; Switched capacitor circuits; Introduction to data converters; Issues of analog layout and device noise.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- R.JacobBaker,H.W.Li, and D.E. Boyce CMOS Circuit Design ,Layout and Simulation, Prentice-Hall of ,1998.
- Mohammed Ismail and Terri Faiz Analog VLSI Signal and Information Process, McGraw-Hill Book company,1994.
- Paul R. Gray and R.G.Meyer, Analysis and design of Analog Integrated circuits John Wiley and sons,,(3rd Edition),1993.
- B. Razavi, RF Microelectronics, Prentice-Hall PTR,1998.

**Embedded System Design-II**

**PIC Architecture** Introduction to PIC microcontrollers, PIC architecture, comparison of PIC with other CISC and RISC based systems and microprocessors, memory mapping, assembly language programming, addressing modes, instruction set. **I/O Programming** PIC I/O ports, I/O bit manipulation programming, timers/counters, programming to generate delay and wave form generation, I/O programming, LEDs, 7segment led’s, LCD and Keypad interfacing.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Instructor reference material.
- Programming PIC microcontrollers with PIC basic by chuck helebuyck
- PIC microcontrollers-programming in basic by Milan verle.
- The C programming Language by Brian W.kernighan and Dennis M.Ritchie
- Let Us C by YashvantP.kanetkar
- Object-Oriented Programming With C++ by E Balaguruswami

**Low Power VLSI Design**

Basics of MOS circuits: MOS Transistor structure and device modeling MOS Inverters MOS Combinational Circuits - Different Logic Families Sources of Power dissipation: Dynamic Power Dissipation Short Circuit Power Switching Power Gliching Power Static Power Dissipation Degrees of Freedom Supply Voltage Scaling Approaches: Device feature size scaling Multi-Vdd Circuits Architectural level approaches: Parallelism, Pipelining Voltage scaling using high-level transformations Dynamic voltage scaling Power Management Switched Capacitance Minimization Approaches: Hardware Software Tradeoff Bus Encoding Two’s complement Vs Sign Magnitude Architectural optimization Clock Gating Logic styles Leakage Power minimization Approaches: Variable-threshold-voltage CMOS (VTCMOS) approach Multi-threshold-voltage CMOS (MTCMOS) approach Power gating Transistor stacking Dual-Vt assignment approach (DTCMOS)

** Text/ Reference Books:**

- Sung Mo Kang, Yusuf Leblebici, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits, Tata Mcgrag Hill.
- Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshraghian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design, 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley (Indian reprint).
- A. Bellamour, and M. I. Elmasri, Low Power VLSI CMOS Circuit Design, Kluwer Academic Press, 1995.
- Anantha P. Chandrakasan and Robert W. Brodersen, Low Power Digital CMOS Design, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.
- Kaushik Roy and Sharat C. Prasad, Low-Power CMOS VLSI Design, Wiley-Interscience, 2000

**Adaptive Digital Signal Processing**

General concept of adaptive filtering and estimation, applications and motivation. Review of probability, random variables and stationary random processes; Correlation structures, properties of correlation matrices.Optimal FIR (Wiener) filter, Method of steepest descent, extension to complex valued signals.The LMS algorithm (real, complex), convergence analysis, weight error correlation matrix, excess mean square error and mis-adjustmentVariants of the LMS algorithm : the sign LMS family, normalized LMS algorithm, block LMS and FFT based realization, frequency domain adaptive filters, Subband adaptive filtering.Signal space concepts - introduction to finite dimensional vector space theory, subspace, basis, dimension, linear operators, rank and nullity, inner product space, orthogonality, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, concepts of orthogonal projection, orthogonal decomposition of vector spaces. Vector space of random variables, correlation as inner product, forward and backward projections, Stochastic lattice filters, recursive updating of forward and backward prediction errors, relationship with AR modeling, joint process estimator, gradient adaptive lattice. Introduction to recursive least squares (RLS), vector space formulation of RLS estimation, pseudo-inverse of a matrix, time updating of inner products, development of RLS lattice filters, RLS transversal adaptive filters. Advanced topics : affine projection and subspaced based adaptive filters, partial update algorithms, QR decomposition and systolic array.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- S. Haykin, Adaptive filter theory, Prentice Hall, 1986.
- B. Widrow and S.D. Stearns, Adaptive signal processing, Prentice Hall, 1984.

**MMICS**

Microwave Integrated Circuits: Thick and thin film technology, Hybrid MIC’s, Monolithic MIC technology, Analysis of Strip line and Microstrip Line: Method of conformal transformation, Charactetic parameters of Strip, Microstrip lines, Microstrip circuit design, Impedance transformers, Filters, Lumped constant microstrip circuits, Coupled Microstrip and Directional Coupler. Microwave Measurements – Concept of vector network analyzer, Basic block diagram of vector network analyzer (VNA), Application of vector network analyzers.Basic block diagram of a spectrum analyzer, functions & applications of a spectrum analyzer.Time Domain Electrometer (TDR) & IC Technology.Microwave Measurements using Vector Network Analyzer, Spectrum Analyser, etc. MMIC Planar circuit Design.MMIC Mixer Design and Simulation.Design of RF Power Amplifier. Design Microwave voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). Design MMIC Mixer and Simulation. Design Microstrip Filter. Designing mm-wave integrated filters.Design of a Broadband MMIC Frequency Doubler. Fabrication processes for microstrip line and co-planar wave guide geometry. In-corporation of magnetic nanostructures like ultra-thin film, nano-wires and nano-particles into magnetic-MMICs. Characterization & theory of magnetically tunable Monolithic microwave reciprocal and non-reciprocal devices. *Review of current research in MMICs design, fabrication and testing.*

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- D.Pozar,” Microwave Engineering”, 2nd Ed, John Wiley
- T.S.Laverghetta-“ Hand book on Microwave Testing”,Artech House,1981
- Samuel. Y. Liao,”Microwave devices and circuits”, Pearson Edn., 2003.
- Rainee N. Simons, Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, Components, and Systems (Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering),

**RF MEMS**

VLSI and Micro-electromechanical Technologies, materials for MEMS. *Actuationtechniques: *Electrostatic, Electromagnetic, Thermal, Piezoelectric, *Micromachining*: Surfacemicromachining, bulk micromachining, LIGA, *Non-Silicon micromachining techniques: PCB, LCP, PDMS/SU8, Case studies: *MEMS/RF MEMS/BioMEMS, MEMS and NEMS basics, Limitations of Silicon device Fabrication, basic microfabrication techniques, MEMS fabrication techniques, Nanofabrication Techniques, Material aspects of MEMS and NEMS (Si, Ge, Metals, Harsh-environment semiconductors, GaAs, InP and related III-V materials, Ferroelectric materials), MEMS and NEMS devices and applications, Carbon Nanotube sensor concepts-design considerations, fabrication of the CNT sensors and state of art applications., Failure mechanism of MEMS/NEMS devices: failure modes and failure mechanisms, stiction and charge related failure mechanisms, creep, fatigue, wear and packaging related failures. **Bio-MEMS fabrication technologies **Introduction to bio-MEMS.Nanomaterials for bio-MEMS, Bulk/surface micromachining, UV Lithography, the LIGA Process, nano-imprinting, hot embossing for Lab-on-a-chip application; Soft fabrication and polymers soft-lithography, micro-molding, micro-stereo lithography, thick-film deposition, SAMs. Sensing technologies for Bio-MEMS application

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Stephen D Santuria, Microsystem Design, Kluwer Academic, 2001
- Marc J. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC Press, 1997
- Hector J. De Los Santos, "RF MEMS Circuit Design for Wireless Applications", ArtechHouse, 2002
- Tai-Ran Hsu MEMS & Microsystem, Design and manufacture, McGraw Hill

**IC Fabrication Technology**

Environment for VLSI Technology : Clean room and safety requirements. Wafer cleaning processes and wet chemical etching techniques. Impurity incorporation: Solid State diffusion modelling and technology; Ion Implantation modelling, technology and damage annealing; characterisation of Impurity profiles. Oxidation: Kinetics of Silicon dioxide growth both for thick, thin and ultrathin films. Oxidation technologies in VLSI and ULSI; Characterisation of oxide films; High k and low k dielectrics for ULSI. Lithography : Photolithography, E-beam lithography and newer lithography techniques for VLSI/ULSI; Mask generation. Chemical Vapour Deposition techniques : CVD techniques for deposition of polysilicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and metal films; Epitaxial growth of silicon; modelling and technology. Metal film deposition : Evaporation and sputtering techniques. Failure mechanisms in metal interconnects; Multi-level metallisation schemes. Plasma and Rapid Thermal Processing: PECVD, Plasma etching and RIE techniques; RTP techniques for annealing, growth and deposition of various films for use in ULSI. Process integration for NMOS, CMOS and Bipolar circuits; Advanced MOS technology.

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- S.K. Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles, John Wiley Inc., New York, 1994 (2nd Edition).
- S.M. Sze (Ed), VLSI Technology, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1988.
- Plummer, Deal , Griffin “Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice & Modeling” PH, 2001.
- P. VanZant , “Microchip Fabrication”, 5th Edition, MH , 2000.

**Nanolithography &Nanoscale Devices**

**THE SCIENCE OF MINIATURIZATION **Moore’s Laws (1,2,&3) and technology’ Roadmap–clean rooms Processing Methods: - Cleaning – Oxidation – Lithography – Etching- – CVD - Diffusion – Ion implantation – metallization – state of the art CMOS architectures Photolithography Overview – Critical Dimension – Overall Resolution – Line-Width – Lithographic Sensitivity and Intrinsic Resist Sensitivity (Photochemical *Quantum Efficiency*) – Resist Profiles – Contrast and Experimental Determination of Lithographic Sensitivity – Resolution in Photolithography – Photolithography Resolution Enhancement Technology **NANOSTRUCTURING BY PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES Next-Generation Technologies: **– State-Of-The-Art (*including principles, capabilities, limits, applications*) EUV lithography – Phase-shifting photolithography – X-ray lithography – Electron Beam Direct Writing System – Focused ion beam (FIB) lithography – Neutral atomic beam lithography – Plasma-Aided Nanofabrication – Soft Lithography – Nano-sphere Lithography – Nanoimprint – Dip-pen nanolithography – key consequences of adopted techniques **NANOMANIPULATION AND PROCESSING Conventional techniques**: Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) – Atomic force microscopy (AFM) – Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) – **Advanced Techniques: **Embossing and surface passivation, Dimensional Subtraction and Addition, Multistep Processing, of –Micro-contact printing– Molding – implications and applications of the conventional and advanced techniques **NANOMETER DEVICES **Material Wave Nanotechnology: Nanofabrication Using a de Broglie Wave-Electron Beam Holography – Atomic Beam Holography- Nanometer Lithography Using Organic Positive/Negative Resists – Sub-10 nm Lithography Using Inorganic Resist – 40 nm-Gate-Length Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Emitter-Transistors-14 nm Gate-Length Electrically Variable Shallow Junction MOSFETs-Operation of Aluminum-Based Single-Electron Transistors at 100 Kelvins- Room Temperature Operation of a Silicon Single-Electron Transistor **SUB-LITHOGRAPHIC ARCHITECTURES **Fundamental scaling limits to the transistors – Beyond CMOS: Self-Assembled structures – Gravitational field assisted assembly – Template-assisted assembly- Shear force assisted assembly - Electroforming and Molding (LIGA) – Fundamentals of Quantum Computing – Quantum Algorithms - Realizing quantum computers – Physical Implementations (*Josephson junction Circuits and semiconductor quantum dots) *

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Guozhong Cao,
*Nanostructures &Nanomaterials Synthesis, Properties G; Z: Applications*, World Scientific Publishing Private, Ltd., Singapore (2004). - W.R.Fahrner,
*Nanotechnology and Nanoelectronics – Materials, Devices, Measurement Techniques,*Springer-Verlag Berlin, Germany (2006). - R. H. J. Hannink and A. J. Hill,
*Nanostructure control of materials*, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC, Cambridge, England (2006). - Zheng Cui,
*Nanofabrication, Principles, Capabilities and Limits*, Springer Science + business media, New York (2008). - Hari Singh Nalwa,
*Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology*(Vol. 3)*- Electrical Properties,*Academic Press, San Diego, USA (2000). - Huff, Howard,
*Into The Nano Era: Moore's Law Beyond Planar Silicon CMOS (*Vol. 106), Springer Series in Materials Science, Springer-Verlag Berlin (2009). - Marc J. Madou,
*Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization*, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, California, USA (2002). - Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov and ShuyanXu
*, Plasma-Aided Nanofabrication: From Plasma Sources to Nanoassembly,*WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA (Weinheim) (2007).

**Introduction to MEMS**

**MEMS MICROFABRICATION 10 **Historical Development of Microelectronics, Evolution of Microsensors, Evolution of MEMS, Emergence of Micromachines, Modeling - Finite Element Analysis, CAD for MEMS, Fabrication – ALD, Lithography Micromachining, LIGA and Micromolding, Saw-IDT Microsensor Fabrication, Packaging – Challenges, Types, Materials and Processes. **SCALING OF MEMS 9 **Introduction to Scaling Issues, Scaling effects on a cantilever beam, Scaling of electrostatic actuators, Scaling of thermal actuator, Scaling of Thermal Sensors, mechanics and electrostatistics. Influence of scaling on material properties. **MICROSYSTEMS 10 **Microsensors, microaccelerometer, microfluidics, Mechanics for Microsystems design-Thermomechanics, fracture mechanics, thin film mechanics. Microfluidmechanics.**MATERIALS FOR MEMS 8 **Materials for mems and pro mems-silicon-metals and polymers-Substrate Materials for MEMS-Silicon-quartz-ceramics-Bulk metallic glasses-Sharp Memory alloys, Carbon based MEMS

**Text/ Reference Books:**

- Marc Madou, Fundamentals of Micro-fabrication, CRC Press 1997.
- MEMS and Microsystems design and manufacture, Tai-Ran Hsu, TataMcGraw Hill 2011.
- Sergey Edward Lyshevski, Nano- and Micro-electromechanical Systems, CRC Press 2000.
- Vijay Varadan, Xiaoning Jiang, and VasundaraVaradan, Microstereolithography and other Fabrication Techniques for 3D MEMS, Wiley 2001.
- Tai-Ran Hsu, MEMS and Microsystems: Design and Manufacture, McGraw-Hill 2001.
- Ken Gilleo. MEMS/MOEMS Packaging: Concepts, Designs, Materials and Processes. McGraw-Hill, 2005.