Skip to main content

Course Outline for China's Foreign Policy & International Relations

Course Outline for China's Foreign Policy & International Relations

Programme: M. Phil
Course No: EA 603
Semester: Winter
Credits: Three
Course Teacher: Srikanth Kondapalli


The course China’s Foreign Policy & International Relations is structured along the following modules. The course consists of regular classes, tutorials, seminars and other such academic activities. This is designed to provide course participants with an analysis of major debates and trends in China’s foreign policy, with emphasis on internal debates and to chart out different research possibilities on the subject.




I.                   Conceptualising China’s Foreign Policy:

·        IR Theory and Chinese Perspectives:

  • Marxism 马克思主义

  • Neo-realism 新现实主义

  • Critical Theory

  • Constructivism 建构注义

·        Concepts

  • National Ethos

  • National Interests [guojia liyi] 国家利益

  • Sovereignty & territorial integrity 国家主权和领土完整 [guójiā zhǔquán hé lǐngtǔ wánzhěng] – disputes & resolution

·        Approaches

  • International system 国际格局[guoji gequ]

  • International Politics国际政治 [Guójì zhèngzhì]

  • Diplomacy 外交[Waijiao]

  • External Relations 对外关系[duiwai guanxi]

  • International Relations 国际关系[guoji guanxi]

  • Bilateral Relations 双边关系[shuangbian guanxi]

  • Multilateral Relations 多边关系[duobian guanxi]

  • Domestic & External dimensions

·        Discourse

  • Struggle 头争[touzheng]

  • United Front统一战线 [tǒnɡyí zhànxiàn]

  • Peaceful Evolution 和平演变

  • Hegemony and power politics 霸权与强权政治 [baquan yu qiáng quán zhèng zhì]

  • Multipolarity 多极化[duojihua]

  • Multilateralism多变化[duobianhua]

II.                Specificities of China:

  • Historical Influences

  • Themes

  • Intermediate Zone中间地带zhōnɡjiān dìdài

  • 'leaning to one side’ 一边倒[yibiandao]

  • “good neighbourliness”  周边政策[zhoubian zhengce]

  • Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence [heping gongchu wuxiang yuanze] 和平共存五原則

  • Three Worlds Theory 三个世界

  • Contradictions 矛盾

  • Era Theory 时代论

  • Peace & Development 和平与发展

  • New Security Concept 新安全观

  •  “Harmonious World” 和谐世界

  • Role of personalities & Institutions

  • Sun Yat-sen 三中山

  • Mao Zedong 毛泽东

  • Zhou Enlai 周恩来

  • Deng Xiaoping 邓小平

  • Jiang Zemin 江泽民

  • Hu Jintao 胡锦涛

  • Foreign policy Establishment & Think-tanks

  • Diplomatic Corps

  • Role of Phenomenon

  • Revolutionary legacy

  • Nationalism 民族主义

  • Globalisation 全球化

III.             China & Major Powers - the Soviet Union/Russia

  • Enduring Interests & Ideology

  • Sino-Soviet Alliance & Dispute

  • Cold War & after

  • Collapse of the Soviet Union & Normalisation

  • Strategic Partnership from 2001

IV.              China & Major Powers - the United States:

  • Enduring Interests & Ideology

  • Cold War dynamics

  • Détente and Rapprochement

  • Tiananmen and after

  • Key issues

  • Taiwan

  • Human Rights

  • Trade

  • Power Politics & Strategic perspectives

V       China & Major Powers - Europe:

  • Enduring Interests

  • Cold War divide – Relations with east Europe

  • Tiananmen & Arms Embargo

  • European Union and China –Taiwan, Tibet issues

  • Investments, Trade & Technology

VI      China & Asia:

  • Afro-Asian movement 亚非运动 

  • China’s Asian policy 亚洲政策

  • Japan 日本

  • South & North Korea 韩国与朝鲜

  • Southeast Asia 东南亚

  • West Asia 西亚 [中东]

  • Central Asia 中亚

VII    China & India:

  • Diplomatic relations

  • Policy perspectives

  • Panchsheel 和平共存五原則  

  • Issues: Taiwan, Tibet, etc

  • Border Dispute & Skirmishes

  • Normalisation to Strategic partnership

  • Economic & Trade relations

  • China and other South Asian countries

VIII   China & Developing Countries:

  • Africa 

  • South America

IX     China & International Institutions

  •  30 years of reform kaifang gaige  开方改革:

  • China & international political & economic institutions:

  • UN, Breton Woods Institutions, WTO, etc.

  • Commercial & Energy diplomacy

  • Arms Control & Disarmament:

  • Defence

  • peace & conflict

  • security & strategic issues



Armstrong, J D, Revolutionary Diplomacy: Chinese Foreign Policy and the United Front Doctrine (1977) Especially Chps. 2 and 3

Ash, Robert ed., China’s Integration in Asia: Economic and Security Issues (2002)

Ash, Robert, D Shambaugh and Seiichiro Takagi, China’s Watching: Perspectives from Europe, Japan, and the United States (2006)

Bardhan, Pranab, “Awakening Giants, Feet of Clay: A Comparative assessment of the Rise of China and India” Journal of South Asian Development 2006; 1; 1[at]

Barnett, Doak, Communist China and Asia: Challenge to American Policy (1960)

Barnett, Doak, The Making of Foreign Policy in China: Structure and Process (1985)

Bhattacharjea, Mira Sinha, China, the World and India (2001)

Bhattacharjea, Mira Sinha “China’s strategy for the determination and consolidation of its territorial boundaries: A preliminary investigation” China Report vol. 23 no. 4 (October-December 1987) pp. 397-420.

Camilleri, Joseph, Chinese Foreign Policy: The Maoist Era and its Aftermath (1980)

Chan, Gerald, China and International Organisations (1989)

Chang, Luke T. China’s Boundary Treaties and Frontier Disputes (1982).

Chen, Gerald, Chinese Perspectives on International Relations: A Framework for Analysis (1999)

Chen, Hongbin, “The Changing Sino-Japanese Relations”, in The Post-Cold War World, Shanghai Institute for International Studies (2000)

Chen, Peiyao, “China: Post-Cold War Environment and its External Relations”, in The Post-Cold War World, Shanghai Institute for International Studies (2000)

Chen, Peiyao, “East Asia: Situation, Concept and Mechanism”, in The Post-Cold War World, Shanghai Institute for International Studies (2000)

Christensen, Tom, Useful AdversariesGrand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958 (1997)

Dalvi, JD Himalayan Blunder: The Curtain Raiser to Sino-Indian War of 1962 (1969)

Deng, Yong and Fei-ling WANG, In the Eyes of the Dragon (1999)

Deng, Yong and Wang, Fei-ling, China Rising: Power and Motivation in Chinese Foreign Policy (2005)

Deshingkar, Giri, Security and Science in India and China: Selected Essays (2005) Edited by Mohanty, M and Bhattacharjea, M.

Deshpande, G.P. “Verbalities and Realities of Foreign Policy” in G.P. Deshpande and Alka Acharya eds., “Crossing a Bridge of Dreams: 50 Years of India China (2001)

Deshpande, G P, “The Maoist World-view”, in K.P.Mishra and Richard Beal eds., International Relations Theory: Western and Non-western Perspectives (1980)

Dittmer, Lowell and Kim, Samuel (eds). China’s Quest for National Identity (1993)

Dittmer, Lowell C.X. George Wei, and Yufan Hao, Challenges to Chinese Foreign Policy: Diplomacy, Globalization and the Next World Power(2008)

Ding, Xinghao, “The US and China: Is a Stable Relationship Possible? in The Post-Cold War World, Shanghai Institute for International Studies (2000)

Dreyer, June T. and  Ilpyong J. Kim (eds) Chinese Defence and Foreign Policy (1989)

Dutt, V.P, China’s Foreign Policy, 1958-62 (1964)

Fairbank, John King (ed), The Chinese World Order: Traditional China’s Foreign Relations (1968)

Fitzgerald, Stephen, China and the World (1980)

Garthoff, Raymond L, (ed.) Sino-Soviet Military Relations (1966)

Geeraerts, Gustaaf and Men, Jing, “International Relations Theory in China” Global Society vol. 15 no. 3, 2001

Garver, John W. China-India Rivalry in Nepal: The Clash over Chinese Arms Sales Asian Survey, Vol. 31, No. 10. (Oct., 1991), pp. 956-975

Garver, John W. Sino-Indian Rapprochement and the Sino-Pakistan Entente Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 111, No. 2. (Summer, 1996), pp. 323-347

Garver, John, Protracted Contest (2004)

Garver, John W, China’s Decision for Rapprochement with the United States, 1968-1971 (1988)

Government of India, White Papers (1961)

Griffith, William E, Sino-Soviet Relations, 1964-1965 (1967)

Griffith, William E, The Sino-Soviet Rift (1964)

Guo, Sujian New Dimensions of Chinese Foreign Policy (2008)

Guo, Yingjie, Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary China: The search for national identity under reform (2004)

Gupta, Karunakar, The Hidden History of the Sino-Indian Frontier (1974)

Hoffman, Steven, India and the China Crisis (1990)

Hsieh, Alice L., Communist China’s Strategy in the Nuclear Era (1962)

Hu, Weixing et al., China’s International Relations in the 21st Century: Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts (2000)

Hunt, Michael, The Genesis of Chinese Communist Foreign Policy (1996)

Hutchinson, Alan, China’s African Revolution (1975)

Jansen, G H, Afro-Asia and Non-Alignment (1966).

Jin, Liangxiang,China and the Middle East: Energy First” Middle East Quarterly, Spring 2005, pp. 3-10.

Kaul, BM Untold Story (1967)

Kim, Samuel (ed) China and the World: Chinese Foreign Policy Faces the New Millenium (1998) (1994)

Kim, Samuel, China, the United Nations and the World Order (1978)

Lamb, Alastair, The China-India Border: The Origins of the Disputed Boundaries (1964)

Liu, Guoli Chinese Foreign Policy in Transition (2004)

Liu, Xiaohong, Chinese Ambassadors: The Rise of Diplomatic Professionalism since 1949 (2001)

Liu, Xuecheng, The Sino-Indian Border Dispute and Sino-Indian Relations (1994)

Lu , Ning, The Dynamics of Foreign-Policy Decisionmaking in China (1997)

Ma, Jisen, The Cultural Revolution in the Foreign Ministry of China (2004)

MacFarquhar, Roderick ed., China Under Mao: Politics Takes Command (1966)

Mankekar, DR The Guilty Men of 1962 (1968)

Maung Maung, The Burma-China Boundary Settlement, Asian Survey, Vol. 1, No. 1. (Mar., 1961), pp. 38-43

Maxwell, Neville, India’s China War (1970)

Medvedev, Roy, China and the Superpowers (1986)

Mullik, BN My Years with Nehru: The Chinese Betrayal (1971)

Murty, TS, Paths of Peace: Studies on Sino-Indian Border Dispute (1983)

Murty, TS, India-China Boundary: India’s Options (1987)

Niquet, Valerie, “China and Europe” in Santhanam, K and Kondapalli, Srikanth, eds. Asian Security and China 2001-2010 (2004)

Pan, Rui, “Sino-US Economic & Trade Relations: Basis for Bilateral Relations”, in The Post-Cold War World, Shanghai Institute for International Studies (2000)

PRC, Selected Documents on Sino-Indian Relations (December 1961-May 1962) (1962)

PRC, Premier Chou En-lai [Zhou Enlai]’s letter to the leaders of Asian and African countries on the Sino-Indian boundary question (November 15, 1962) (1974) (2nd printing)

Pollack, Jonathan and Suisheng Zhao, Chinese Foreign Policy: Pragmatism and Strategic Behaviour (2003)

Qian, Qichen, Ten Episodes in China’s Diplomacy (2005)

Robinson, T and Shambaugh, D eds. Chinese Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (1994)

Ross, Robert S, “China’s Strategic Role in Asia” Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science (1986)

Rozman, Gilbert, The Chinese Debate About Soviet Socialism, 1978-1985 (1987)

Schichor, Yitzhak, The Middle East in China’s Foreign Policy 1949-1977 (1979)

Shichor, Yitzhak, “China’s Upsurge: Implications for the Middle East” Israel Affairs, Vol.12, No.4, October 2006, pp.665–683

Segal, Gerald (ed) Chinese Politics and Foreign Policy Reform (1990)

Shambaugh, David, Beautiful Imperialist: China Perceives America, 1972-1990 (1991)

Shambaugh, David, “China and Europe” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 519, (Jan., 1992), pp. 101-114.

Shambaugh, David, “China in Asia” International Security

Shambaugh, David, Power Shift: China and Asia’s New Dynamics (2006)

Speeches and writings of major Chinese leaders: Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Deng Xiaoping, Li Peng, Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao and the current ruling elite.

State Council of the PRC, Six White Papers issued from 1995 to 2006

Sutter, Robert G, Chinese Foreign Relations: Power and Policy Since the Cold War (Asia in World Politics) (2007)

Vang,  Pobzeb Five Principles of Chinese Foreign Policies (2008)

Van Ness, Peter, Revolution and China’s Foreign Policy: Peking’s Support of Wars of National Liberation (1971)

Van Ness, P. Three lines in Chinese foreign relations, 1950-1983. Three Visions of Chinese Socialism (1983)

Vertzberger, Yaacov, Misperceptions in Foreign Policy Making: The Sino-Indian Conflict, 1959-1962 (1984)

Wall, David, “”China and the World Trade Organisation”, in Robert Ash ed., China’s Integration in Asia: Economic and Security Issues (2002)

Wang, Gungwu, China and the World since 1949: The Impact of Independence, Modernity and Revolution (1977)

Whiting, Allen S., “Chinese Nationalism and Foreign Policy After Deng”, The China Quarterly, 142, 1995 (June): 295-316

Woodrow Wilson Centre, Cold War International History Project documents at

Yahuda, Michael, China’s Role in World Affairs (1978).

 Yahuda, Michael, “The End of Isolationism: Chinese Foreign Policy After Mao (1984)

Yong, Deng, “The Chinese Conception of National Interest in International Relations”, The China Quarterly No. 154 (June 1998) pp 308-329

Yu, George T., China’s African Policy: A Study of Tanzania (1975)

Zagoria, Donald S, The Sino-Soviet Conflict, 1956-1961 (1962)

Zhao, Gancheng, “Assessing China’s Impact on Asia-EU Relations in The Post-Cold War World, Shanghai Institute for International Studies (2000)

Zhao, Quansheng, “Domestic Factors of Chinese Foreign Policy: From Vertical to Horizontal Authoritarianism”, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1992, 519 (January): 159-176

Zhao, Quansheng, “Patterns and Choices of Chinese Foreign Policy”, Asian   Affairs, 20 (1) (Spring): 1-5

Zheng, Yongnian, Discovering Chinese Nationalism in China: Modernization, Identity and International Relations (1999)

Zhao, Suisheng, Power Competition in East Asia: From the Old Chinese World Order to Post-Cold War Regional Multipolarity (1998)

Zhao, Suisheng, China and the United States: Cooperation and Competition in Northeast Asia (2008)

Zhao, Suisheng, China-US Relations Transformed: Perspectives and Strategic Interactions (2009)


Asian Affairs (London)

Asian Survey   (Berkeley, Los Angeles)

Beijing Review (Beijing)

China Report (New Delhi)

China Quarterly (London)

Foreign Affairs Journal (Beijing)

Foreign Policy (Washington)

Issues & Studies (Taipei)

Journal of Asian Studies

The Journal of Contemporary China

Pacific Affairs (Vancouver)

Pacific Review (Oxford)

Problems of Communism (Washington)

JNU Online Journals at



PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs at

Chinese Academy of Social Sciences at

Shanghai Institute of International Studies at

China Daily (Beijing) at

People’s Daily (Beijing) at

International Herald Tribune

The Hindu (New Delhi)

BBC, Selected World Broadcasts

US Department of Commerce, Foreign Broadcast Information Services: China Report at


The internal evaluation pattern of this course is intended to assess the participant in several inter-related fields such as a written exam, term paper and other assignments. The comprehension and analytical skills of the course participant is evaluated.

A. Mandatory:

  1. One term paper of nearly 4,000-5,000 words to be submitted in hard and electronic versions based on the style of JNU SIS Research Manual. Date of submission:  April 30, 2009
  2. Review of three books. Dates of submission: February 15, March 15, and April 15.
  3. Three assignments – on the concepts related to the course.  Dates of submission to be announced in class.
  4. For all the above assignments prompt submission of manuscripts is mandatory
  5. An end-semester written examination to be held on May 4, 2009
  6. Grading & marks: Broadly, the written exam will be 50 percent of the grade; term paper will be 15 percent, the three book reviews 15 percent, textual analysis cumulatively another 10 percent, while 10 percent of the overall grade would be for class participation. Attendance is therefore highly recommended.

B. Instructions:

  1. The course participants are encouraged to choose topics of their interest for the purposes of the above assignments, in addition to a preliminary discussion with the course instructor.

Evaluation is based largely on clarity of views, ability to analyse concepts and dynamics and adherence to ethical academic practices is a must. Serious action will be taken against plagiarism.

A warm welcome to the modified and updated website of the Centre for East Asian Studies. The East Asian region has been at the forefront of several path-breaking changes since 1970s beginning with the redefining the development architecture with its State-led development model besides emerging as a major region in the global politics and a key hub of the sophisticated technologies. The Centre is one of the thirteen Centres of the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi that provides a holistic understanding of the region.

Initially, established as a Centre for Chinese and Japanese Studies, it subsequently grew to include Korean Studies as well. At present there are eight faculty members in the Centre. Several distinguished faculty who have now retired include the late Prof. Gargi Dutt, Prof. P.A.N. Murthy, Prof. G.P. Deshpande, Dr. Nranarayan Das, Prof. R.R. Krishnan and Prof. K.V. Kesavan. Besides, Dr. Madhu Bhalla served at the Centre in Chinese Studies Programme during 1994-2006. In addition, Ms. Kamlesh Jain and Dr. M. M. Kunju served the Centre as the Documentation Officers in Chinese and Japanese Studies respectively.

The academic curriculum covers both modern and contemporary facets of East Asia as each scholar specializes in an area of his/her interest in the region. The integrated course involves two semesters of classes at the M. Phil programme and a dissertation for the M. Phil and a thesis for Ph. D programme respectively. The central objective is to impart an interdisciplinary knowledge and understanding of history, foreign policy, government and politics, society and culture and political economy of the respective areas. Students can explore new and emerging themes such as East Asian regionalism, the evolving East Asian Community, the rise of China, resurgence of Japan and the prospects for reunification of the Korean peninsula. Additionally, the Centre lays great emphasis on the building of language skills. The background of scholars includes mostly from the social science disciplines; History, Political Science, Economics, Sociology, International Relations and language.

Several students of the centre have been recipients of prestigious research fellowships awarded by Japan Foundation, Mombusho (Ministry of Education, Government of Japan), Saburo Okita Memorial Fellowship, Nippon Foundation, Korea Foundation, Nehru Memorial Fellowship, and Fellowship from the Chinese and Taiwanese Governments. Besides, students from Japan receive fellowship from the Indian Council of Cultural Relations.