Ph.D. in Business Administration

Ph.D. in Business Administration

 

It is a full-time doctoral programme that offers students opportunities for advanced studies and research in different specializations related to Management Science, Entrepreneurship and Economics. The Programme aims to prepare students for careers in teaching and research in management studies, entrepreneurship, economics and in related disciplines, and for careers in the government, in industry, and in other organizations that require advanced analytical and research capabilities. This programme will strictly comply with UGC rules.

 

There will be a one-year course work where each student must earn a minimum of 16-credit points. The course work has a two-tier structure: it consists of a core curriculum (compulsory credit courses) in the first semester and elective courses (optional courses in the second semester). Each student is required to choose electives in consultation with his/her faculty advisor.

 

The course work will be followed by a Phd dissertation which should be completed within the stipulated time as prescribed by UGC guidelines.

 

 

PhD in Business Administration

                                                        (One year course work)                                                       

Course No.

Course Title

Credits

Semester 1

SMEPhD 1001

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4

SMEPhD 1002

QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES  

4

SEMESTER 2

Course number will depend on the elective chosen

ELECTIVE I

4

Course number will depend on the elective chosen

ELECTIVE II  

4

 

Total Credits

16

 

 

ELECTIVE COURSES

 

Course No.

Course Title

Credits

SMEPhD 1003

ECONOMETRICS

4

SMEPhD 1004

BUSINESS ANALYTICS – A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACH

4

SMEPhD 1005

BUSINESS VENTURE AND INNOVATION

4

SMEPhD 1006

INDIAN ETHOS AND BUSINESS MODELS

4

SMEPhD 1007

ADVANCED TOPICS IN ECONOMETRICS

4

SMEPhD 1008

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS FORECASTING

4

SMEPhD 1009

INTRODUCTION TO GAME THEORY

4

SMEPhD 1010

TOPICS IN URBAN TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT

4

 

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SEMESTER 1

CORE COURSES SYLLABI

 

SMEPhD 1001: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Course Objective

To familiarize the students to the principles of scientific methodology in business enquiry; to develop analytical skills of business research; to develop the skills for scientific communications

Unit I: Introduction

Meaning, objectives and motivations in research – Characteristics and limitations of research – Components of research work - Criteria of good research – Research process – Types of Research:  Fundamental, Pure or Theoretical Research –Applied Research –Descriptive Research – Evaluation Research –Experimental Research –Survey Research – Qualitative Research – Quantitative Research –Historical Research.

Unit II: Research Design

Research Design – definition – essentials and types of research design – errors and types of errors in research design. Research problem: Selecting and analyzing the research problem – problem statement formulation – formulation of hypothesis. Literature review: purpose, sources, and importance - literature review procedure. Objectives: Learning Objectives; Definitions; Formulation of the research objectives.

Unit III: Measurement. Scaling and Sampling

Variables in Research – Measurement and scaling – Different scales – Construction of instrument – Validity and Reliability of instrument. Data Collection methods – primary and secondary data – Construction of questionnaire and instrument – validation of instruments. Sample size determination - Sample design and sampling techniques.

Unit IV: Data Analysis and Tools

Processing of Data: Editing of Data – Coding of Data – Classification of Data –Statistical Series. Qualitative Vs Quantitative data analyses – Univariate, Bivariate and Multivariate statistical techniques – Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion, correlation and Regression, Chi-square test: Applications, Steps, characteristics, limitations, Analysis of Variance and Co-variance.

Factor analysis – Discriminant analysis – cluster analysis – multiple regression and correlation – multidimensional scaling – Conjoint Analysis - Application of statistical software for data analysis.

 Unit V: Research Report Writing

Research report – Different types – Contents of report –executive summary – chapterization – contents of chapter – report writing – the role of audience – readability – comprehension – tone – final proof – report format – title of the report – Ethical issues in research: Code of Ethics in Research – Ethics and Research Process – Importance of Ethics in Research

References:

  1. Creswell, J. (2008) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 3rd Edition; SAGE Publications
  2. Kothari C.K. (2004) 2/e, Research Methodoloy – Methods and Techniques (New Age International, New Delhi)
  3. Donald R. Cooper, Pamela S. Schindler and J K Sharma, Business Research methods, 11th Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi, 2012.
  4. Uma Sekaran and Roger Bougie, Research methods for Business, 5th Edition, Wiley India, New Delhi, 2012.
  5. Krishnswamy, K.N., Shivkumar, Appa Iyer and Mathiranjan M. (2006) Management Research Methodology; Integration of Principles, Methods and Techniques (Pearson Education, New Delhi).

 

 

SMEPhD 1002: QUANTITATIVE TECHQNIQUES

 

Course Objective

1. To Formulate and construct a mathematical model for a linear programming problem in real life situation.

2. To enable the students to have strong knowledge of Planning, Designing and solving the transportation and assignment problems.

3. To Understand the concept of Queuing models and applies appropriate queuing Models

4. To Study the issues related to replacement models.

5. To Acquaint   the knowledge and the concepts of inventory control for solving production problems.

Unit I:  Introduction to Linear Programming (LP)

Introduction to applications of operations research in functional areas of management-Solution and implementation-Linear Programming-Formulation-Graphical method- Simplex method- Two phase simplex Method.

Unit II: Transportation and Assignment Models

Transportation model - Initial solutions using Vogel’s Approximation Method- Check for optimality- MODI method- Assignment models - Hungarian method - Travelling Salesman problem.

Unit III: Queuing Theory

Queuing Theory – Single and Multi-channel models – finite and infinite number of customers finite and infinite calling source.

Unit IV: Replacement Models

Replacement Models-Individuals replacement Models (With and without time value of money) – Group Replacement Models.

Unit V: Inventory Models and Simulation

Inventory models- EOQ and EBQ Models (With and without shortages), Quantity Discount Models. Monte-Carlo simulation.

References:

  1. Kalavathy S, Operational Research, Second edition 2002.
  2. Hamdy A Taha, Introduction to Operations Research, Prentice Hall India, Seventh Edition, Third Indian Reprint 2004.
  3. Paneerselvam R, Operations Research, Prentice Hall of India, Fourth Print, 2008.

 

 

 

SEMESTER II

ELECTIVE COURSES SYLLABI

 

SMEPhD 1003: ECONOMETRICS

Course Objective:

Econometrics is a set of research tools used to estimate and test economic relationships. The methods taught in this introductory course can also be employed in the business disciplines of accounting, finance, marketing and management and in many social science disciplines. The aim of this course is to provide you with the skills helpful in filling the gap between being “a student of economics” and being “a practicing economist.” By taking this introduction to econometrics you will gain an overview of what econometrics is about, and develop some “intuition” about how things work. The emphasis of this course will be on understanding the tools of econometrics and applying them in practice

 

Unit I: Introduction

Meaning, definition and scope of econometrics – types and methodology of econometrics – importance of stochastic assumptions – random variables- functions of random variables.

Unit II: Cross Sectional Data and Panel Data

Nature of Heteroscedasticity- OLS estimation in the presence of Heteroscedasticity- Method of Generalized Least Squares (GLS) - Consequences of using OLS in the presence of Heteroscedasticity- Direction of Heteroscedasticity- Remedial measures- Method of weighted of weighted least squares.

The nature of qualitative response models- The linear probability model- The Logit model- The Probit model -The Tobit model -Estimation of panel data regression model.

Unit III: Time Series Analysis

Time series analysis: Time series vs Cross section data, pooling micro data, approaches to economic forecasting – stationary time series - transforming non-stationary time series. Regression of a Unit root time series on another unit root time series – Estimation and forecasting with vector Autoregression (VAR).

Unit IV: Lag Models

The role of “time” or” lag” in economics- The reasons for lags- Estimation of distributed-lag models- the Koyck approach to distributed-lag model- The Almon or Polynomial distributed-lag- The Granger Causality Test.

Unit V: Econometric Methods with CA

Introduction to maximum likelihood estimation – maximum likelihood applied to a linear regression model – transformation of variables and maximum likelihood – Using SPSS, E-Views and STATA packages.

 

References:

1. William H. Greene “Econometric Analysis,” Pearson Education.

2. A.Koutsoyiannis, “Theory of Econometrics: An Introductory Exposition of   Econometric Methods”, Educational Low-Priced Books Scheme, McMillan    Education Ltd.,(1992).

3. Damodar Gujarathi “Basic Econometrics”, Tata MCGraw Hill Ltd,1999.4th ed.

4. Dr. M. Upender, “Applied Econometrics,” Vrinda Publications (P) Ltd.

5. Peijewang “Financial Econometrics: Methods and Models” Routledge – Taylor & Francis Gorup – Vikas Publishing House, Pvt Ltd.

 

 

SMEPhD 1004: BUSINESS ANALYTICS – A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACH

 

Course Objective:

  1. To enable the research student to understand the emerging areas in business.
  2. All the areas are covered to give an insight in to different opportunities available in business.
  3. It helps the students to appreciate other businesses as an equivalent.

Unit I

Business analytics - Cloud computing - Artificial intelligence - 5G technology - Internet of things

Unit II

Food technology management – Water resource management - Construction engineering – low cost housing

Unit III

Energy – Solar, thermal, Hydro, storage – smart grid – electricity generation. Agricultural innovation and instrumentation engineering.

Unit IV

Product Analytics & Modeling - – Robotics - Innovative Product Development, engineering design with technical communication. Reverse Engineering,

Unit V

Medical technology innovation - Bioengineering and medicine – Healthcare Analytics - Pharmacy – Veterinary – Alternative medicine.

References:

Note: Students are expected to surf the web for content of the syllabus given and expected to acquire the knowledge related to business opportunities in these areas. References given are only a sample. This course is completely a student oriented learning module.

  1. Business Analytics : Data Analysis and Decision Making 5th Edition  (English, Paperback, S. Christian Albright, Wayne L. Winston) Publisher: Cengage Learning - ISBN: 9788131526613, 8131526615 Edition: 5th Edition, 2015
  2. Business Analytics for Managers : Taking Business Intelligence Beyond Reporting  (English, Paperback, Gert H. N. Laursen, Jesper Thorlund) Publisher: Wiley ISBN: 9788126544127, 8126544120 Edition: 2013
  3. Internet of Things: A Hands-On Approach Paperback – 2015  by Arsheep Bahga (Author),‎ Vijay Madisetti (Author), Orient Blackswan Private Limited - New Delhi; First edition (2015)  ISBN-10: 8173719543   ISBN-13: 978-8173719547
  4. Cloud Computing: A Hands-on Approach Paperback – 2014  by Arshdeep Bahga (Author),‎ Vijay Madisetti (Author)  Orient Blackswan; 1ST edition (2014)  ISBN-10: 8173719233 ISBN-13: 978-8173719233

 

 

SMEPhD 1005: BUSINESS VENTURE AND INNOVATION

 

Course Objective:

To provide students an exposure to various aspects of business innovation and opportunities thereof.

 

Unit 1

The Innovation Imperative - Innovation Globalization and Development

Sustainability Led Innovation and Sources of Innovation - Search Strategies for Innovation

Unit 2

Business Opportunity Spotting - Opportunity Evaluation - Industry and Market Research - Strategy and Business Models

Unit 3

Building the Case - Leadership and Team - Exploiting Networks Developing - Exploiting Knowledge and Intellectual Property

Unit 4

Business Plans - Entrepreneurial Finance - Financial Forecasting - Pitching to Resource Providers - Negotiating Deals - New Venture Creation

Unit 5

Creating New Venture - New Products and Services - Developing Businesses - Talent through Corporate Venturing - Growing the Enterprise

 

References 

  1. Baron, R. A., Shane, S. A. and Reuber, A. R. Entrepreneurship: a process perspective. Toronto, ON: Thompson Nelson, 2008.
    Type: Textbook: ISBN-10: 0176103341; ISBN-13: 9780176103347
  1. Kawasaki, G. The art of the start: the time-tested, battle-hardened guide for anyone starting anything. 2.0 New York, NY: Penguin, 2015.
    Type: Textbook: ISBN-13: 9781591847847
  1. Osterwalder, A. and Pigneur, Y. Business model generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.
    Type: Textbook: ISBN-10 0470876417; ISBN-13 9780470876411
  1. Wise, S. Hot or not: how to know if your business idea will fly or fail? . Ryerson Entrepreneur Institute, Toronto, ON: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
    Type: Textbook: ISBN-10 1468024493; ISBN-13 9781468024494
  2. Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 3rd ed., by John Bessant and Joe Tidd -ISBN: 978-1-118-99309-5
  3. Online:http://www.jackmwilson.net/Entrepreneurship/Principles/JMW-Principles-Syllabus-F2016-Doc.pdf
  4. https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/sloan-school-of-management/15-351-managing-innovation-and-entrepreneurship-spring-2008/lecture-notes/
  5. https://www.coursera.org/learn/open-innovation-entrepreneurship

 

 

SMEPhD 1006: INDIAN ETHOS AND BUSINESS MODELS

 

Course Objective

1. To learn about Indian ethos and its relevance today

2. To assist and guide the student in understanding value systems and its impact on business.

3. To know the Indian philosophy of knowing oneself.

4. To understand the management functions with Indian perspective.

5. To know management concepts from ancient texts.

 

Unit I: Indian Ethos and Values

Indian Ethos - Indian work ethos and principles of Indian Management - Economics of giving - Developing and implementing gross national happiness. Formation of values - Application of values - Business leadership and value attributes - Cases

Unit II: Indian Philosophical System

Indian Philosophical system - Nature of mind - Personality attributes based on Gunas - Human values and five sheaths - Indian Ethos and corporate governance - Indian constitution and Unity in diversity – Cases

Unit III: Indian Management Thoughts

Bagavad Gita and Management - Chanakya Neethi on leadership - Thirukural and Management – Cases

Unit IV: Indian Economic System

Indian economy after Independence - Features of Indian Economic Systems – Family system, High Savings, Non-corporate sector as the base, Higher entrepreneurial activities, Social Capital, Value systems – Differences with the Western Economic Models – Capitalism – Communism – Features - Western Models are not universal –Impact of Culture, History and other factors on Economy                                                

Unit V: Indian Business Models

Business Models: Western, Eastern and Indian Models – Features of Western Models – Weak Foundations-  Universality of Models - Indian Business Models since Ancient times – Business During British Domination- Business in Independent India –  Corporate Sector -  MSMEs – Industrial and Business Clusters

 

References:

  1. Kanagasabapathi, P.  Indian Models of Economy, Business and Management, Third Edition, PHI Learning Ltd, New Delhi, 2012
  2. Agarwala, P.N, A Comprehensive History of Business in India, Tata McGraw Hill Ltd., New Delhi, 2001
  3. Dutt, Romesh, The Economic History of British India, Vols. I and II, Kegal Paul, Trench, Trubner, Great Britain, 1906
  4. Maddison, Angus, The World Economy – A Millennial Perspective, OECD, Paris, 2001
  5. Vaidyanthan, R, India Uninc., Westland Ltd., Chennai, 2014
  6. Nandagopal.R and Ajith Sankar R.N. Indian Ethos and Values in Management, ISBN – 978-0-07-106779-9. Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd, 2011.
  7. Khandelwal.N.M, Indian Ethos and Values for Managers, ISBN 978-93-5024-452-4, 3rd Edition, Himalaya Publishing House, 2011.
  8. Management Thoughts in Thirukkural by K. Nagarajan – ANMOL Publications PVT Ltd 4374/4B Ansari Road, New Delhi 110 002. 2010
  9. Dr. Radhakrishnan Pillai, Corporate Chanakya, ISBN 978-81-8495-133-2, Jaico Publishing House, 2016
  10. Soham, LEEP (Life Empowerment and Enrichment Program), ISBN 9788175977259  Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, 2017.

 

 

SMEPhD 1007: ADVANCED TOPICS IN ECONOMETRICS

Course objective: This course provides a good understanding about the advance topics in econometrics. Students can apply the knowledge gain from this course to pursue their own empirical research.

Syllabus

  1. Qualitative Response Regression Models: Nature of qualitative response models, LPM (Linear Probability Model),Applications  of  LPM and its problems, Alternatives to LPM: The Logit Model and Probit Model, Extention of probit model: Tobit Model(censored regression model), Modelling count data: The poission regression model.
  2. Panel data regression Models:

Traditional panel data models: advantage of panel data, linear panel data model, Different method of Estimation : Fixed effect model and Random effect model, FEM v/s REM  (Hausman test).

Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels: Bias in the simple OLS estimators, FEM and REM and its solutions, bias of heterogeneous slope parameters and its solutions, (Mean group (MG) and Pooled Mean Group (PMG))

Non stationary panels: Panel Unit root tests: Levin and Lin test(LL), ImPesaran and Shin test (IPS), Mandala and Wu test(MW); Panel cointegration tests: Kao test, McCoskey and kao test, Pedroni test , Larsson et al, test.

  1. Dynamic Econometric Models: Role of lag; distributive lag model:  Koyck and Almon transformation, other models of lag structure; Autoregressive models: Partial adjustment models, adaptive expectation model, estimation of autoregressive models, Testing autocorrelation in autoregressive model; Granger causality test.
  2. Simultaneous Equation Models: Nature of simultaneous equations, simultaneous equation bias, identification problem and its conditions, Instrument variables, Estimation of a just identified equation: Method of Indirect least square(ILS), Estimation of a over identified equation: Method of two stage least squares(2SLS).

Readings:

Asteriou, D and Stephen Hall (2011) Applied Econometrics, 2nd Edition, Palgrave Macmillan.

Baltagi, B.H. (2013), Econometric analysis of panel data , 5th Edition New York, John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Cameron, A. and P. Trivedi (2005), Microeconometrics: Methods and Applications, Cambridge Press University.

Cameron, A. and P. Trivedi (2013), Regression analysis of count data, 2nd Edition, Cambridge Press University.

Davidson, R. and J.MacKinnon (2004), Econometric theory and methods, Oxford, Oxford university press.

Hsiao, C. (2003), Analysis of panel data, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press

Maddala, G. (1983), Limited-dependent and qualitative variables in econometrics

Cambridge , Cambridge University Press

Wooldridge, J.M. (2010), Econometric analysis of cross-section and panel data,

2nd Edition, Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.

Wooldridge, J.M. (2012), Introductory econometrics: a modern approach, 5th Edition, Cengage Learning.

 

SMEPhD 1008: TIME SERIES ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS FORECASTING

Course objective: The objective of this course is to provide students with an overview and in-depth knowledge of quantitative techniques used for forecasting and their application.   This includes techniques  that range from simple ones like moving averages and smoothing techniques to more sophisticated ones like regression models, ARIMA (and related) models, VAR and VECM models, Causality testing and ARCH and GARCH models to test volatility.

Syllabus

  1. Forecasting Theory and Methods:  Overview and Types of Forecasts
  2. Forecasting with a Single-Equation Regression Model: Unconditional Forecasting,  Forecasting with Serially Correlated Errors, Conditional Forecasting
  3. Smoothing and Extrapolation of Time Series: Simple Extrapolation Models, Smoothing and Seasonal Adjustment
  4. Properties of Stochastic Time Series: Characterizing Time Series: the Autocorrelation Function, Stationarity, Random Walk, Testing for Random Walks, Co-integrated Time Series
  5. Linear Time Series: Moving Average Models, Autoregressive Models, Mixed Autoregressive and Moving Average Models, Homogeneous Non-Stationary Processes: ARIMA Models, Box-Jenkins Methodology, Specification of ARIMA Models, SARIMA, ARMAX Models
  6. Forecasting with Time Series Models: Computing a Forecast, The Forecast Error,Properties of ARIMA Forecasts
  7. Causality , Exogeneity, VAR, Impulse Response Functions, Volatility Measurement, Modeling and Forecasting: The ARCH Process, The GARCH Process

 

Readings

  • Box, George E.P., Gwilym M. Jenkings and Gregory C. Reinsel (2009) Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control 3rdEdn. Pearson Education
  • Enders, Walter (2004) Applied Econometric Time Series. Wiley
  • Evans, Michael K. (2003).  Practical Business Forecasting.  UK: Blackwell.
  • Hanke, John E.  and Dean W. Wichern (2005). Business Forecasting. 8thEdn. New Delhi: Pearson-Prentice Hall
  • Makridakis, Spyros, Steven C. Wheelwright and Rob J. Hyndman (1998).  Forecasting: Methods and Applications.  3rdEdn. USA: John Wiley and Sons
  • Pindyck, Robert S. and Daniel L. Rubinfeld. (1997). Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts. 3rdEdn. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Stock, James H. and Mark W. Watson (2014). Introduction to Econometrics. 3rdEdn. Pearson Education Addison Wesley

 

SMEPhD 1009: INTRODUCTION TO GAME THEORY

 

Course objective: The papers would prepare students about the cooperative and non-cooperative games which firm play as a pricing and output strategy.

 

Syllabus

  1. Strategic games : Concepts of dominance, pure and mixed strategy Nash equilibrium
  2. Extensive games : Backward induction outcomes in games with perfect information, subgame perfect equilibrium in games with imperfect information; Rubinstein bargaining solution
  3. Repeated games : Nash folk theorems; finitely and infinitely repeated games
  4. Static and dynamic games of incomplete information : Bayesian-Nash equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium and sequential equilibrium
  5. Cooperative games: Nash bargaining solution, concepts of core, shapely value etc.

      Readings

  • Dixit Avinash and Susan Skeath:  Games of strategy, w w  Norton& company, New York. London
  • Fudenberg D. and J. Tirole (1994): Game theory, Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press.
  • Gibbons, R. (1992): Game theory for applied economists, Princeton, Princeton University Press 
  • Kreps D. (1990) : A course in microeconomic theory,  Princeton ,Princeton University Press.
  • Mas-Colell A., J. Green and M.Whinston (1995): Microeconomic theory,U.K.Ooxford University Press.
  • Myerson R. (1997): Game theory: analysis of conflict,USA, Harvard University Press.
  • Osborne M. and A. Rubinstein (1994): A course in game theory, Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press.
  • Osborne Martin J.  An Introduction to game theory, , Oxford universiy press
  • Shubik M. (1982): Game theory in the social sciences, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

 

SMEPhD 1010: TOPICS IN URBAN TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT

           

Course Objective: The objective of this course is to make students aware about structure and growth of cities in an economy. It also highlights the need and importance of  urban transport.

Syllabus

  1.  Introduction: Development of cities ,Alfred Weber's theory of industrial location, theory of agglomerations, functions and economic interest of transport, characteristics,  transport and economic development ,transport and urban development.
  2. The Internal Structure of Cities: The monocentric model of the city, Urban hierarchies and central place theory, the contemporary city and suburbanization  sprawl, economics of housing markets, land use patterns and controls
  3. Urban Poverty: The role of space, policy responses
  4. Overview of local government
  5. Growth of cities in India, looking to the future
  6. Economic analysis transport : Economic theory, transport as an economic activity, cost of transport, pricing of transport services, law of diminishing returns and economics of scale, transport policy and development in a changing environment, assessment of present and proposed transport policy and legislation, environment cost of transport, transport regulation
  7. Road freight transport
  8. Road passenger transport :Introduction to passenger transport, macro and micro passenger transport

 

      Readings:

Andrew C. K. (1993) :Why regions grow: a review of research on the economic base model,  Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta economic review, 16-29.

Berube A. and Forman B. (2002) :Living on the Edge, decentralization within cities in the 1990s, the living cities census series, The Brookings Institution (October 2002)

Button K.J. (1976) :The use of economics in urban travel demand modeling, a survey, socio-economic planning sciences, 10(2) : 57-66

Button K.J.(1993) :Transport Economics,  UK, Edward Elgar

Button, K.J. and Pearman A. (1985) :Applied transport economics: a practical case study approach, London, Gordon and Breach

Coulson, N.E. (1991): Really useful tests of the monocentric model land economics, Land economics, 67(3), 299-307.

Ellen, I. G. and Schwartz, A.E.(2000):No easy answers: cautionary notes for competitive cities, The Brookings, review, 18(3), 43–45

Glaeser, Edward L.(1998) Are cities dying? Journal of economic perspectives, 12(1), 139-160.

Jose G.-I., Tye W.B., Winston C. (1999):  Essays in transportation economics and policy, a handbook in honor of John R. Meyer, Washington D.C, The Brookings Institution Press

Kenneth A. S. (1993) Urban traffic congestion, a new approach to the gordian knot, the Brookings review, 11(2),  6-11.

McLean, M. L., and Voytek K.P. (1992) :Understanding your economy, using analysis to guide local strategic planning, 2nd ed, Chicago, Planners Press

Mieszkowski, P., and Mills, E.S. (1993): The causes of metropolitan suburbanization, Journal of economic perspectives, 7(1), 135-147.

Molly O’Meara S. (2002): What will it take to halt sprawl, world watch, 15(1), 12-23.

Naik N.T.K and Mansoor S. R. (2007):  Urbanisation of India. New Delhi, Eastern Book Corporation.

O’ Sullivan, A.  (2003) : Urban economics, Boston, MA, Irwin McGraw-Hill

Peiser R.B. (1989): Density and urban sprawl,  Land economics , 65(3), 193-204.

Peter G. and Richardson H. (1989): Notes from the underground: the failure of urban mass transit, The public interest, 94, 77-86

Porter M.E. (1998): Clusters and the new economic competition, Harvard business review, 76 (6), 77-90

Singh S. K. (2000): Technical characteristics and efficiency of the Indian state road transport undertakings?,Indian journal of transport management, 24(8): 533-543.

Singh S. K. (2005): Review of urban transportation in India? Journal of public transportation, 8(1): 79-97

Sivaramakrishnan, K.C., Kundu A. and  Singh B.N. (2005): Handbook of urbanization in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press

Timothy J. B.  (1994): Jobs, productivity, and local economic development: what implications does economic research have for the role of government?  national tax Journal , 47(4), 847-862.

Timothy J. B. et al (1987) :Saturn and state economic development, forum for applied research and public policy, 2 (1), 29- 40